X-linked disorders with cerebellar dysgenesis XLCD are a genetically heterogeneous and clinically variable group of disorders in which the hallmark is a cerebellar defect hypoplasia, atrophy or dysplasia visible on brain imaging, caused by gene mutations or genomic imbalances on the X-chromosome.
The paper also ignited social debate: Some speculated that a genetic test for homosexuality would lead to more discrimination, while others attacked the premise that being gay has a biological basis. Neuroradiological findings included cortical atrophy, enlargement of the cerebral ventricles, bilateral hypoplasia of the head of the caudate nucleus, lower vermis and cerebellar hemisphere hypoplasia.
Mamm Genome. Bibcode : PNAS Shokeir MHK: X-linked cerebellar ataxia. Article Google Scholar 27 Boehnke, M.
Church Times. Related Human rights minority rights Discrimination Freedom Index. Blue Christmas is an ecumenical community service of scripture, prayer and music during Advent for those who struggle, who mourn and any who find celebrating difficult.
These cortical rearrangements that occur are not as simple as unplugging a lamp and plugging it into another socket. The Moral Majority is Shrinking. This perspective is incomplete because sexual orientation is always defined in relational terms and necessarily involves relationships with other individuals.
On the other hand, many countries today in the Middle East and Africa, as well as several countries in Asia, the Caribbean and the South Pacific, outlaw homosexuality. Retrieved 12 September George Washington.
Saunders, Philadelphia, In this study no link to Xq28 was found among homosexual females, indicating a different genetic pathway as for most sex-specific phenotypes. There are at least 15 genes on the X-chromosome that have been constantly or occasionally associated with a pathological cerebellar phenotype.
Boehnke, M. Freije, D. The results showed that among gay brothers, the concordance rate for markers from the Xq28 region were significantly greater than expected for random Mendelian segregation, indicating that a link did exist in that small sample.
But not everyone finds the results convincing. Normal cognitive development has also been reported. Death occurred in infancy or early childhood. A family in which affected males showed congenital cerebellar hypoplasia, microcephaly, short stature, profound developmental delay, blindness, deafness and seizures was described.
Associated features include cognitive decline, peripheral neuropathy, dysautonomia [ 33 ].